Although we suggest you use the Amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments of the functional sequences to design PCR primers and probes etc. you may wish to browse the entire database, which includes the unmapped and non-functional sequences. Use the directory below to identify the name of the sequence you are interested in and then click on the V BASE entry. This will take you to the sequence itself. Alternatively, you can go directly to the sequences by clicking here.

V BASE - main directory

This is a list of all the sequences in V BASE (this includes all mapped and unmapped sequences, whether functional or not - a compilation containing only mapped functional sequences can be found here). To remove the redundancy (caused by different groups publishing the same sequence) where there are two or more exon sequences are identical on the nucleotide level there is a single V BASE entry (Column 1). This table lists all the identical published sequences which correspond to each V BASE entry (Column 5). A link to the reference list is provided in parentheses for each sequence. Sequences which can be assigned definitive map positions within the main heavy and light chain loci according to accepted locus nomenclature are shown in bold and in these cases the locus/segment name is given in Column 2. Sequences which map to orphon loci are not shown in bold but their chromosomal locations are given as "Orph-CX" in Column 2 where X is the chromosome on which they reside. The family designation of each sequence is shown in Column 3 (- in this column indicates that no definitive family classification can be made). for reference purposes, Column 4 denotes the accession number of the first sequence that comprises each V BASE entry.

The V BASE entry (Column 1) is named as follows. If a single sequence comprises the V BASE entry, the V BASE entry is named after this sequence. If two sequences comprise a single V BASE entry, the V BASE entry corresponds to the names of these sequences separated by a /. If three or more sequences comprise a single V BASE entry, the V BASE entry corresponds to the names of the first two sequences separated by a / followed by three dots. An additional + at the end of the name indicates that the sequence has been mapped within the main heavy and light chain loci (since all D and J sequences have been mapped. + has not been added to these sequences). Further details on the compilation of V BASE (with examples) can be found here.

VH Sequences

                                              number of 
1.V BASE entry        2.Locus     3.Family   first named   5.Compiled sequences
1-1+                   1-02          VH1      X92208       1-1(3)
1-17                   -             VH3      ------       1-17(66)
1-19                   -             VH3      ------       1-19(66)
1-36                   -             VH3      ------       1-36(66)
1-52                   -             VH3      ------       1-52(66)
1-v/CLL-27...+         5-78          VH5      X92213       1-v(3)/CLL-27(52)/L2-9(52)/DP-80(51)
12M28                  -             VH1      ------       12M28(44)
15-1/HC16-3            Orph-C16      VH1      X92211       15-1(3)/HC16-3(49)
1d101/DP-18+           7-40          VH7      L00159       1d101(46)/DP-18(34)
2-2                    -             VH3      ------       2-2(66)
2-20                   -             VH3      ------       2-20(66)
2.9II/VH4-MC8...+      4-55          VH4      X92223       2.9II(3)/[VH4-MC8(28)/VH4-MC8c(28)]
2.9III+                3-54          VH3      X92215       2-9III(3)
22-1+                  1-12          VH1      X92210       22-1(3)
2M27/11M27...          -             VH1      ------       2M27(44)/11M27(44)/[DA-6(48)]
3-17                   -             VH3      ------       3-17(66)
1-36                   -             VH3      ------       3-36(66)
3-49RBe                -             VH3      X87090       3-49RBe(62e)
3-49RBm                -             VH3      ------       3-49RBm(62m)
3d277d+                4-31          VH4      L10098       3d277d(32)
3d279d+                4-61          VH4      L10097       3d279d(45)
4-32                   -             VH3      ------       4-32(66)
4.30                   -             VH4      Z14236       4.30(37)
4.31                   -             VH4      X92229       4.31(37)
4.32                   -             VH4      Z14235       4.32(37)
4.34.2                 -             VH4      Z14239       4.34.2(37)
4.36                   -             VH4      Z14241       4.36(37)
4.37                   -             VH4      Z14242       4.37(37)
4.38                   -             VH4      Z14243       4.38(37)
4.39                   -             VH4      X92230       4.39(37)
4.42/VH4.13...         -             VH4      X92233       4.42(37)/[VH4.13(17)/H2(35)]
4.43.4                 -             VH4      X92235       4.43.4(37)
4.43/VH4-MC8...        -             VH4      X92234       4.43(37)/[VH4-MC8(28)/VH4-MC8c(28)]
4.44                   -             VH4      X92236       4.44(37)
4.44.3                 -             VH4      X92237       4.44.3(37)
4M28                   -             VH1      ------       4M28(44)
65-1/DP-20...          Orph-C16      VH1      X55585       65-1(9)/DP-20(34)/HC16-2(49)
65-3/COS-11...         Orph-C16      VH1      X55586       65-3(9)/COS-11(49)/HC16-4(49)
6M27                   -             VH1      ------       6M27(44)
7-2+                   1-45          VH1      X92209       7-2(3)
7A.10                  -             VH7      X92291       7A.10(59)
7A.16                  -             VH7      X92292       7A.16(59)
7A.18                  -             VH7      X92293       7A.18(59)
7A.4                   -             VH7      X92290       7A.4(59)
7E.2                   -             VH7      X92294       7E.2(59)
7R.9                   -             VH7      X92295       7R.9(59)
8-1B+                  3-66          VH3      X92218       8-1B(3)
8M27                   -             VH1      ------       8M27(44)
b1..e                  -             VH3      M77323       b1..e(11e)
b13../hv3019b13        -             VH3      M77336       b13..(11)/hv3019b13(11)
b18../hv3019b18        -             VH3      M77337       b18..(11)/hv3019b18(11)
b25                    -             VH3      M77326       b25(11)
b26                    -             VH3      M77338       b26(11)
b28e                   -             VH3      M77334       b28e(11e)
b28m                   -             VH3      ------       b28m(11m)
b29e                   -             VH3      M77339       b29e(11e)
b29m                   -             VH3      ------       b29m(11m)
b30                    -             VH3      M77335       b30(11)
b32e/b36m              -             VH3      M77324       b32e(11e)/b36m(11m)
b32m                   -             VH3      ------       b32m(11m)
b37                    -             VH3      M77327       b37(11)
b43                    -             VH3      M77328       b43(11)
b48                    -             VH3      M77329       b48(11)
b52                    -             VH3      M77331       b52(11)
b54../hv3005b54        -             VH3      M77332       b54..(11)/hv3005b54(11)
COS-10+                3-57          VH3      Z17396       COS-10(51)
COS-12+                3-d           VH3      Z18898       COS-12(51)
COS-13/HC16-14         Orph-C16      VH3      Z18918       COS-13(49)/HC16-14(49)
COS-14/HC15-5          Orph-C15      VH1      Z18899       COS-14(49)/HC15-5(49)
COS-15+                3-47          VH3      Z18900       COS-15(51)
COS-16+                3-43          VH3      Z18901       COS-16(51)
COS-18/HC15-6          Orph-C15      VH1      Z18903       COS-18(49)/HC15-6(49)
COS-19+                1-c           VH1      Z18904       COS-19(51)
COS-2+                 3-52          VH3      Z17388       COS-2(51)
COS-20                 Orph-C16      VH3      Z18905       COS-20(49)
COS-21/DA-12+          3-76          VH3      Z27445       COS-21(51)/DA-12(48)
COS-22+                3-54          VH3      Z27446       COS-22(51)
COS-23+                3-38          VH3      Z27447       COS-23(51)
COS-25+                5-51          VH5      Z27449       COS-25(51)
COS-28+                3-62          VH3      Z27452       COS-28(51)
COS-3/BHGH1+           3-30          VH3      Z17389       COS-3(51)/BHGH1(55)
COS-30                 Orph-C16      VH3      Z29594       COS-30(49)
COS-4                  Orph-C15      VH1      Z17390       COS-4(49)
COS-5+                 1-45          VH1      Z17391       COS-5(51)
COS-6/DA-8...+         3-74          VH3      Z17392       COS-6(51)/[DA-8(48)]
COS-8/hv3005f3...+     3-30          VH3      Z17394       COS-8(51)/hv3005f3(11)/b41(11)/f1e(11e)/f3..m(11m)
DA-1+                  1-f           VH1      Z29977       DA-1(48)
DA-2+                  1-e           VH1      Z29978       DA-2(48)
DA-3+                  3-72          VH3      Z29979       DA-3(48)
DA-4+                  3-65          VH3      Z29980       DA-4(48)
DA-5+                  3-h           VH3      Z29981       DA-5(48)
DP-1/HC15-1            Orph-C15      VH1      Z12303       DP-1(34)/HC15-1(49)
DP-10/hv1051...+       1-69          VH1      Z12312       DP-10(34)/hv1051(47)/1M27(44)/5M27(44)HULGLVH1(60)/57GTA8(29)/[DA-6(48)]
DP-11/8-2+             1-67          VH1      Z12313       DP-11(34)/8-2(3)
DP-12                  Orph-C15      VH1      Z12314       DP-12(34)
DP-13+                 7-56          VH7      Z12315       DP-13(34)
DP-14/V1-18+           1-18          VH1      Z12316       DP-14(34)/V1-18(43)
DP-15/V1-8+            1-08          VH1      Z12317       DP-15(34)/V1-8(43)
DP-17/HC16-1           Orph-C16      VH1      Z12319       DP-17(34)/HC16-1(49)
DP-19/HC15-3           Orph-C15      VH1      Z12321       DP-19(34)/HC15-3(49)
DP-2/V71-5+            1-58          VH1      Z12304       DP-2(34)/V71-5(4)
DP-21/4d275a+          7-04.1        VH7      Z12323       DP-21(34)/4d275a(46)
DP-22/HC15-2           Orph-C15      VH1      Z12324       DP-22(34)/HC15-2(49)
DP-23/HC15-4           Orph-C15      VH1      Z12325       DP-23(34)/HC15-4(49)
DP-24                  Orph-C15      VH1      Z12326       DP-24(34)
DP-25/VI-3b+           1-03          VH1      Z12327       DP-25(34)/VI-3b(2)
DP-28/VH2-MC1...+      2-70          VH2      Z12330       DP-28(34)/VH2-MC1(28)/VH2-MC1b(28)/DA-7(48)
DP-29/12-2+            3-72          VH3      Z12331       DP-29(34)/12-2(3)
DP-3+                  1-f           VH1      Z12305       DP-3(34)
DP-30                  Orph-C15      VH3      Z12332       DP-30(34)
DP-31/V3-9P...+        3-09          VH3      Z12333       DP-31(34)/V3-9P(43)/A(66)/B(66)/C(66)/D(66)
DP-32/V3-20+           3-20          VH3      Z12334       DP-32(34)/V3-20(43)
DP-33/V3-43+           3-43          VH3      Z12335       DP-33(34)/V3-43(43)
DP-34/DA-10+           3-g           VH3      Z12336       DP-34(34)/DA-10(48)
DP-35/V3-11...+        3-11          VH3      Z12337       DP-35(34)/V3-11(43)/22-2B(3)
DP-36/HC16-6...        Orph-C16      VH3      Z12602       DP-36(34)/HC16-6(49)/VF3-15P(50)
DP-37/HC16-7           Orph-C16      VH3      Z12603       DP-37(34)/HC16-7(49)
DP-38/9-1...+          3-15          VH3      Z12338       DP-38(34)/9-1(3)/LSG1.1(40)/LSG5.1(40)/LSG7.1(40)/RCG1.1(40)/VHGL3.1(42)
DP-39/HC16-8...        Orph-C16      VH3      Z12339       DP-39(34)/HC16-8(49)/65-4(9)
DP-4+                  1-45          VH1      Z12306       DP-4(34)
DP-40/HC16-9...        Orph-C16      VH3      Z12340       DP-40(34)/HC16-9(49)/15-2B(3)
DP-41+                 3-76          VH3      Z12341       DP-41(34)
DP-42+                 3-53          VH3      Z12342       DP-42(34)
DP-43/V3-52P...+       3-52          VH3      Z12343       DP-43(34)/V3-52P(43)/VH105(26)
DP-44/HC16-10...       Orph-C16      VH3      Z12344       DP-44(34)/HC16-10(49)/65-2(9)
DP-45                  Orph-C16      VH3      Z12345       DP-45(34)
DP-46/3d216...+        3-30.3        VH3      Z12346       DP-46(34)/3d216(32)/GL-SJ2m(13m)
DP-47/V3-23...+        3-23          VH3      Z12347       DP-47(34)/V3-23(43)/VH26Chen(14)/VH26-5.0(64)
DP-48/13-2+            3-13          VH3      Z12348       DP-48(34)/13-2(3)
DP-49/1.9III...+       3-30/3-30.5   VH3      Z12349       DP-49(34)/1.9III(3)/p3..(11)/p5(11)/p9m(11m)/3d28(32)
DP-5/V1-24P+           1-24          VH1      Z12307       DP-5(34)/V1-24P(43)
DP-50/hv3019b9...+     3-33          VH3      Z12350       DP-50(34)/hv3019b9(11)/b9..(11)/d277(32)
DP-51+                 3-48          VH3      Z12351       DP-51(34)
DP-52+                 3-47          VH3      Z12352       DP-52(34)
DP-53/hvm148...+       3-74          VH3      Z12353       DP-53(34)/hvm148(61)/13G12(57)/VPVH(56)/[DA-8(48)]
DP-54/V3-7...+         3-07          VH3      Z12354       DP-54(34)/V3-7(43)/HHG19(30)
DP-55+                 3-25          VH3      Z12355       DP-55(34)
DP-56+                 3-25          VH3      Z12356       DP-56(34)
DP-57/hv3003...+       3-22          VH3      Z12357       DP-57(34)/hv3033(12)/2-3(3)
DP-58/hv3d1EG          -             VH3      Z12358       DP-58(34)/hv3d1EG(54)
DP-59/V3-35...+        3-35          VH3      Z12359       DP-59(34)/V3-35(43)/VH19(10)
DP-6+                  1-17          VH1      Z12308       DP-6(34)
DP-60/V3-6P+           3-06          VH3      Z12360       DP-60(34)/V3-6P(43)
DP-61+                 3-64          VH3      Z12361       DP-61(34)
DP-63/VH4.21...+       4-34          VH4      Z12363       DP-63(34)/[VH4.21(17)/VH4-MC5(28)/VH4-MC5b(28)]
DP-64/3d216d+          4-30.2        VH4      Z12364       DP-64(34)/3d216d(32)
DP-65/3d75d...+        4-30.1/4-31   VH4      Z12365       DP-65(34)/3d75d(45)/4.33(37)/VH4-MC9(28)
DP-66/V71-2...+        4-61          VH4      Z12366       DP-66(34)/V71-2(4)/H1(35)/VH4-MC3(28)/VH4-MC3b(28)
DP-67/VH4-4B+          4-b           VH4      Z12367       DP-67(34)/VH4-4B(38)
DP-68/1.9II...+        4-28          VH4      Z12368       DP-68(34)/1.9II(3)/3d28d(32)/V12G-1(18)/[VH4.13(17)/H2(35)]
DP-69/4d255...         Orph-C15      VH4      Z12369       DP-69(34)/4d255(45)/4.40(37)/VH4.17(17)/VH4.23(17)/H5(35)/VH4-MC1(28)/HC15-8(49)
DP-7/21-2...+          1-46          VH1      Z12309       DP-7(34)/21-2(3)/3-1(3)/hv1f10(33)
DP-70/4d68...+         4-04          VH4      Z12370       DP-70(34)/4d68(45)/4.41(37)
DP-71/3d197d...+       4-59          VH4      Z12371       DP-71(34)/3d197d(45)/hv4c2(54)/VH4.11(17)/VH4.15e(17e)/VH4-MC2(28)/G411(58)
DP-71RBe               -             VH4      X87091       DP-71RBe(62e)
DP-71RBm               -             VH4      ------       DP-71RBm(62m)
DP-72/V4-55P...+       4-55          VH4      Z12372       DP-72(34)/V4-55P(43)/4d64(45)/VH4-MC8a(28)
DP-73/V5-51...+        5-51          VH5      Z12373       DP-73(34)/V5-51(43)/CLL-12(52)/EBV-21(52)/L3-4(52)/CB-4(52)/VH251Sanz(17)/VHVBLK(17)/VHVAU(17)/VHVCH(17)/VHVLB(17)/VHVTT(17)
DP-74/VH-VI...+        6-01          VH6      Z12374       DP-74(34)/VH-VI(24)/VHGL6.3(28)/6-1G1(3)/VH6(53)/VHVI(17)/VHVIBLK(17)/VHVICH(17)/VHVICW(17)/VHVIIS(17)/VHVIJB(17)/VHVIMW(17)/VHVITE(17)
DP-75/VI-2...+         1-02          VH1      Z14071       DP-75(51)/VI-2(2)/hv1L1(31)
DP-76+                 2-05          VH2      Z14072       DP-76(51)
DP-77/WHG16+           3-21          VH3      Z14073       DP-77(51)/WHG16(30)
DP-78/3d230d...+       4-30.4        VH4      Z14074       DP-78(51)/3d230d(45)/4.34(37)
DP-79/4d154...+        4-39          VH4      Z14075       DP-79(51)/4d154(45)/VH4.18(17)/MLH4-1(29)/VH4-MC6(28)/G418(58)
DP-8+                  1-02          VH1      Z12310       DP-8(34)
DP-81+                 3-63          VH3      Z15099       DP-81(51)
DP-84/HC16-12          Orph-C16      VH3      Z27511       DP-84(51)/HC16-12(49)
DP-85/HC16-11          Orph-C16      VH3      Z27454       DP-85(51)/HC16-11(49)
DP-86/DA-9+            3-66          VH3      Z27455       DP-86(51)/DA-9(48)
DP-87/HC16-13          Orph-C16      VH3      Z27456       DP-87(51)/HC16-13(49)
DP-88/hv1051K...+      1-e           VH1      Z49804       DP-88(51)/hv1051K(47)/7M27(44)
DP-9/V1-27P...+        7-27          VH7      Z12311       DP-9(34)/V1-27P(43)/1d292(46)
E                      -             VH3      ------       E(66)
F                      -             VH3      ------       F(66)
f1m/f2e                -             VH3      ------       f1m(11m)/f2e(11e)
f2m                    -             VH3      ------       f2m(11m)
f3..e                  -             VH3      M77299       f3..e(11e)
f7                     -             VH3      M77300       f7(11)
GL-SJ2e                -             VH3      M62737       GL-SJ2e(13e)
H10                    -             VH4      M95120       H10(35)
H11Rechavi+            3-74          VH3      J00239       H11Rechavi(15)
H11vanEs               -             VH4      M95121       H11van Es(35)
H12                    -             VH4      M95122       H12(35)
H16BR+                 3-52          VH3      J00237       H16BR(15)
H3                     -             VH4      M95113       H3(35)
H4                     -             VH4      M95144       H4(35)
H6                     -             VH4      M95116       H6(35)
H7                     -             VH4      M95117       H7(35)
H8                     -             VH4      M95118       H8(35)
H9                     -             VH4      M95119       H9(35)
HA2                    Orph-C15      VH1      J00238       HA2(7)
HC15-7                 Orph-C15      VH3      Z29597       HC15-7(49)
HC16-15/VHGL3.4        Orph-C16      VH3      Z29612       HC16-15(49)/VHGL3.4(42)
HC16-16/DP-82          Orph-C16      VH3      Z29613       HC16-16(49)/[DP-82(51)]
HG3+                   1-46          VH1      J00240       HG3(7)
HHG4                   -             VH3      X62129       HHG4(30)
hv1263/3M28...         -             VH1      M83132       hv1263(5)/3M28(44)/9M28(44)
hv1f10t                -             VH1      L06612       hv1f10t(33)
hv3.3+                 3-11          VH3      M15496       hv3.3(27)
hv3005/b1..m...+       3-30          VH3      M83134       hv3005(12)/b1..m(11m)/b36e(11e)/b42(11)/3d24(32)
hv4005/3d24d+          4-28          VH4      M83133       hv4005(21)/3d24d(32)
LSG11.1                -             VH3      M99400       LSG11.1(40)
LSG12.1                -             VH3      M99401       LSG12.1(40)
LSG2.1                 -             VH3      M99402       LSG2.1(40)
LSG3.1                 -             VH3      M99403       LSG3.1(40)
LSG4.1                 -             VH3      M99404       LSG4.1(40)
LSG6.1                 -             VH3      M99406       LSG6.1(40)
LSG8.1/LSG9.1...       -             VH3      M99408       LSG8.1(40)/LSG9.1(40)/LSG10.1(40)
MTGLa                  -             VH3      X70248       MTGLa(39)
p1                     -             VH3      M77301       p1(11)
p2                     -             VH3      M77302       p2(11)
p6                     -             VH3      M77305       p6(11)
p9e                    -             VH3      M77306       p9e(11e)
PS421                  -             VH4      ------       PS421(65)
psiRC                  -             VH3      M99410       psiRC(40)
RR.VH1.1e              -             VH1      X67902       RR.VH1.1e(36e)
RR.VH1.2               -             VH1      X67905       RR.VH1.2(36)
S12-1                  -             VH2      L21962       S12-1(41)
S12-10                 -             VH2      L21970       S12-10(41)
S12-12                 -             VH2      L21971       S12-12(41)
S12-14                 -             VH2      L21972       S12-14(41)
S12-2                  -             VH2      L21963       S12-2(41)
S12-4                  -             VH2      L21964       S12-4(41)
S12-5                  -             VH2      L21965       S12-5(41)
S12-6                  -             VH2      L21966       S12-6(41)
S12-7                  -             VH2      L21967       S12-7(41)
S12-8                  -             VH2      L21968       S12-8(41)
S12-9/DP-27...+        2-70          VH2      L21969       S12-9(41)/DP-27(34)/VH2-MC2(28)/VH2-MC2a(28)/VH2-MC2c(28)/VH2-MC2e(28)
Tou-VH4.21             -             VH3      X56591       Tou-VH4.21(16)
V1-12P+                1-12          VH1      M99638       V1-12P(43)
V1-14P/DP-16+          1-14          VH1      M99639       V1-14P(43)/DP-16(34)
V1-17P+                1-17          VH1      M99640       V1-17P(43)
V1-40P+                7-40          VH7      M99644       V1-40P(43)
V1-45+                 1-45          VH1      M99645       V1-45(43)
V1-46+                 1-46          VH1      M99646       V1-46(43)
V11                    Orph-C15      VH3      X05712       V11(17)
V13C                   Orph-C15      VH1      L25542       V13C(50)
V2-1+                  4-39          VH4      X05715       V2-1(17)
V2-10P/COS-1+          2-10          VH2      M99647       V2-10P(43)/COS-1(51)
V2-26/DP-26+           2-26          VH2      M99648       V2-26(43)/DP-26(34)
V201                   -             VH1      M13911       V201(25)
V3-13+                 3-13          VH3      M99653       V3-13(43)
V3-15+                 3-15          VH3      M99654       V3-15(43)
V3-16P+                3-16          VH3      M99655       V3-16P(43)
V3-19P/COS-26+         3-19          VH3      M99656       V3-19P(43)/COS-26(51)
V3-21+                 3-21          VH3      M99658       V3-21(43)
V3-22P+                3-22          VH3      M99659       V3-22P(43)
V3-25P+                3-25          VH3      M99661       V3-25P(43)
V3-30+                 3-30          VH3      M99663       V3-30(43)
V3-32P+                3-32          VH3      M99664       V3-32P(43)
V3-33+                 3-33          VH3      M99665       V3-33(43)
V3-36P/DP-83+          3-36          VH3      M99667       V3-36P(43)/DP-83(51)
V3-37P+                3-37          VH3      M99668       V3-37P(43)
V3-38P+                3-38          VH3      M99669       V3-38P(43)
V3-41P+                3-41          VH3      M99670       V3-41P(43)
V3-42P+                3-42          VH3      M99671       V3-42P(43)
V3-44P+                3-44          VH3      M99673       V3-44P(43)
V3-47P+                3-47          VH3      M99674       V3-47P(43)
V3-48/hv3d1...+        3-48          VH3      M99675       V3-48(43)/hv3d1(54)/WHG26(30)
V3-49+                 3-49          VH3      M99676       V3-49(43)
V3-50P+                3-50          VH3      M99677       V3-50P(43)
V3-53+                 3-53          VH3      M99679       V3-53(43)
V3-54P+                3-54          VH3      M99680       V3-54P(43)
V3-63P+                3-63          VH3      M99681       V3-63P(43)
V3-64/YAC-6+           3-64          VH3      M99682       V3-64(43)/YAC-6(48)
V35/VI-2b+             1-02          VH1      X07448       V35(1)/VI-2b(2)
V3e                    Orph-C15      VH3      X07449       V3e(1e)
V3m                    Orph-C15      VH3      ------       V3m(1m)
V4-31+                 4-31          VH4      M99683       V4-31(43)
V4-34+                 4-34          VH4      M99684       V4-34(43)
V54                    Orph-C15      VH1      L25543       V54(50)
V58                    -             VH4      X05716       V58(18)
V71-1e+                3-62          VH3      M29814       V71-1e(4e)
V71-1m/DP-62+          3-62          VH3      ------       V71-1m(4m)/DP-62(34)
V71-3e+                3-60          VH3      M29813       V71-3e(4e)
V71-3m/COS-9+          3-60          VH3      ------       V71-3m(4m)/COS-9(51)
V71-4+                 4-59          VH4      M29812       V71-4(4)
V71-6e+                3-57          VH3      M29815       V71-6e(4e)
V71-6m+                3-57          VH3      ------       V71-6m(4m)
V71-7+                 7-56          VH7      M29810       V71-7(4)
V79/VIV-4b...+         4-04          VH4      X05713       V79(8)/VIV-4b(2)/VH4.19(17)/VH4-MC4(28)
VF2-26/HC16-5...       Orph-C16      VH2      L25544       VF2-26(50)/HC16-5(49)/YAC-1(49)
VF3-16P/YAC-2          Orph-C16      VH3      L25546       VF3-16P(50)/YAC-2(49)
VH15+                  5-78          VH5      X92281       VH15(26)
VH1GRR                 -             VH1      X60503       VH1GRR(6)
VH2-MC1a               -             VH2      X92239       VH2-MC1a(28)
VH2-MC2b               -             VH2      X92243       VH2-MC2b(28)
VH2-MC2d               -             VH2      X92245       VH2-MC2d(28)
VH20                   Orph-C15      VH1      X92282       VH20(26)
VH251Shen+             5-51          VH5      M18806       VH251Shen(22)
VH26Rabbitts+          3-23          VH3      J00236       VH26Rabbitts(23)
VH26-3.7               -             VH3      U29481       VH26-3.7(64)
VH3-11                 -             VH3      X92288       VH3-11(38)
VH3-8                  -             VH3      X92287       VH3-8(38)
VH32Humphries+         5-a           VH5      X92279       VH32Humphries(26)
VH32Sanz+              5-a           VH5      X92227       VH32Sanz(17)
VH4-MC3a               -             VH4      X92250       VH4-MC3a(28)
VH4-MC4a               -             VH4      X92253       VH4-MC4a(28)
VH4-MC4b               -             VH4      X92254       VH4-MC4b(28)
VH4-MC5a               -             VH4      X92256       VH4-MC5a(28)
VH4-MC5c               -             VH4      X92258       VH4-MC5c(28)
VH4-MC7                -             VH4      X92260       VH4-MC7(28)
VH4-MC8b               -             VH4      X92263       VH4-MC8b(28)
VH4-MC8d               -             VH4      X92265       VH4-MC8d(28)
VH4-MC8e               -             VH4      X92266       VH4-MC8e(28)
VH4-MC8f               -             VH4      X92267       VH4-MC8f(28)
VH4-MC8g               -             VH4      X92268       VH4-MC8g(28)
VH4-MC9a               -             VH4      X92270       VH4-MC9a(28)
VH4-MC9b               -             VH4      X92271       VH4-MC9b(28)
VH4-MC9c               -             VH4      X92272       VH4-MC9c(28)
VH4-MC9d               -             VH4      X92273       VH4-MC9d(28)
VH4-MC9e               -             VH4      X92274       VH4-MC9e(28)
VH4-MC9f               -             VH4      X92275       VH4-MC9f(28)
VH4.12                 -             VH4      X56356       VH4.12(17)
VH4.14                 -             VH4      X56358       VH4.14(17)
VH4.15m                -             VH4      X92327       VH4.15m(17m)
VH4.16                 -             VH4      X56360       VH4.16(17)
VH4/COS-7+             3-37          VH3      X92277       VH4(10)/COS-7(51)
VH5/4d76...+           4-34          VH4      X92278       VH5(10)/4d76(45)/[VH4.21(17)/VH4-MC5(28)/VH4-MC5b(28)]
VHBam+                 3-42          VH3      M12072       VHBam(19)
VHD26                  Orph-C15      VH3      M36530       VHD26(8)
VHGL1.2                -             VH1      Z14213       VHGL1.2(42)
VHGL1.8                -             VH1      Z14214       VHGL1.8(42)
VHGL1.9                -             VH1      Z14215       VHGL1.9(42)
VHGL3.5/DP-82          -             VH3      Z14218       VHGL3.5(42)/[DP-82(51)]
VHGL3.6                -             VH3      Z14219       VHGL3.6(42)
VHGL3.7/DP-82          -             VH3      Z14220       VHGL3.7(42)/[DP-82(51)]
VHGL3.8                -             VH3      Z14221       VHGL3.8(42)
VHGL3.9                -             VH3      Z14222       VHGL3.9(42)
VHSP/VH4.22...+        4-b           VH4      M12071       VHSP(19)/VH4.22(17)/VH-JA(20)
VHVBLK32               -             VH5      X56376       VHVBLK32(17)
VHVCW/COS-24+          5-51          VH5      X56368       VHVCW(17)/COS-24(51)
VHVJB                  -             VH5      X56367       VHVJB(17)
VHVMW/VHVRG            -             VH5      X56375       VHVMW(17)/VHVRG(17)
VI-3+                  1-03          VH1      X62107       VI-3(2)
VI-4.1b+               7-04.1        VH7      X62110       VI-4.1b(2)
VII-5+                 2-05          VH2      X62111       VII-5(2)
VII-5b+                2-05          VH2      X62108       VII-5b(2)
VIV-4/4.35+            4-04          VH4      X62112       VIV-4(2)/4.35(37)
WAD4GL                 -             VH2      X93619       WAD4GL(63)
YAC-10/1d37+           7-81          VH7      Z27509       YAC-10(48)/1d37(46)
YAC-11/COS-29+         3-75          VH3      Z27510       YAC-11(48)/COS-29(51)
YAC-12/V3-29P+         3-29          VH3      Z49805       YAC-12(51)/V3-29P(43)
YAC-3+                 2-70          VH2      Z27502       YAC-3(48)
YAC-4+                 3-65          VH3      Z27503       YAC-4(48)
YAC-5+                 3-66          VH3      Z27504       YAC-5(48)
YAC-7/10M28...+        1-69          VH1      Z27506       YAC-7(48)/10M28(44)/13M28(44)/RR.VH1.1m(36m)
YAC-8+                 1-67          VH1      Z27507       YAC-8(48)
YAC-9/COS-27...+       3-73          VH3      Z27508       YAC-9(48)/COS-27(51)/MTGL(39)/DA-11(48)

D Sequences

                                              number of 
1.V BASE entry        2.Locus     3.Family   first named   5.Compiled sequences
D1                     2-8           D2       J00233       D1(136)
D1-1                   1-1           D1       X97051       D1-1(139)
D1-14/DM2              1-14          D1       X97051       D1-14(139)/DM2(135)
D1-20                  1-20          D1       X97051       D1-20(139)
D1-26                  1-26          D1       X97051       D1-26(139)
D1-7/DM1               1-7           D1       X97051       D1-7(139)/DM1(135)
D2-15/D2               2-15          D2       X97051       D2-15(139)/D2(136)
D2-2                   2-2           D2       X97051       D2-2(139)
D2-21                  2-21          D2       X97051       D2-21(139)
D2-8/DLR1              2-8           D2       X97051       D2-8(139)/DLR1(135)
D3                     2-21          D2       J00235       D3(136)
D3-10/DXP'1            3-10          D3       X97051       D3-10(139)/DXP'1(135)
D3-16                  3-16          D3       X97051       D3-16(139)
D3-22/D21-9            3-22          D3       X97051       D3-22(139)/D21-9(8)
D3-3/DXP4              3-3           D3       X97051       D3-3(139)/DXP4(135)
D3-9/DXP1...           3-9           D3       X97051       D3-9(139)/DXP1(135)/D21-0.5(8)
D4                     2-2           D2       J00232       D4(136)
D4-11/DA1              4-11          D4       X97051       D4-11(139)/DA1(135)
D4-17                  4-17          D4       X97051       D4-17(139)
D4-23                  4-23          D4       X97051       D4-23(139)
D4-4/DA4               4-4           D4       X97051       D4-4(139)/DA4(135)
D4-b                   2-2           D2       M35648       D4-b(137)
D5-12/DK1              5-12          D5       X97051       D5-12(139)/DK1(135)
D5-18                  5-18          D5       X97051       D5-18(139)
D5-24                  5-24          D5       X97051       D5-24(139)
D5-5/DK4               5-5           D5       X97051       D5-5(139)/DK4(135)
D6-13/DN1              6-13          D6       X97051       D6-13(139)/DN1(135)
D6-19                  6-19          D6       X97051       D6-19(139)
D6-25                  6-25          D6       X97051       D6-25(139)
D6-6/DN4               6-6           D6       X97051       D6-6(139)/DN4(135)
D7-27/DHQ52            7-27          D7       X97051       D7-27(139)/DHQ52(138)

JH Sequences

                                              number of 
1.V BASE entry        2.Locus     3.Family   first named   5.Compiled sequences
JH1                    1             JH1      J00256       JH1(138)
JH2                    2             JH2      J00256       JH2(138)
JH3a                   3             JH3      J00256       JH3a(138)
JH3b                   3             JH3      X86355       JH3b(141)
JH4a                   4             JH4      J00256       JH4a(138)
JH4b                   4             JH4      X86355       JH4b(141)
JH4d                   4             JH4      M25625       JH4d(140)
JH5a                   5             JH5      J00256       JH5a(138)
JH5b                   5             JH5      X86355       JH5b(141)
JH6a                   6             JH6      J00256       JH6a(138)
JH6b                   6             JH6      X86355       JH6b(140)
JH6c                   6             JH6      X86356       JH6c(141)
JHpsi1                 -             -        J00256       JHpsi1(138)
JHpsi2                 -             -        J00256       JHpsi2(138)
JHpsi3                 -             -        J00256       JHpsi3(138)

VK Sequences

                                              number of 
1.V BASE entry        2.Locus     3.Family   first named   5.Compiled sequences
13K04                  -             VK3      L37728       13K04(100)
13K07/13K09e           -             VK3      L37727       13K07(100)/13K09e(100e)
13K16/13K17            -             VK3      L37730       13K16(100)/13K17(100)
13K18                  -             VK3      L37729       13K18(100)
3A7                    -             VK3      L19271       3A7(98)
3A9                    -             VK3      L19272       3A9(98)
A12+                   A12           VK2      X71882       A12(93)
A13+                   A13           VK2      X63395       A13(90)
A16/humkv301...+       A16 or O10    VK3      X71883       A16(93)/humkv301(103)/humkv310(103)
A18b+                  A18           VK2      U41645       A18b(110)
A21+                   A21           VK2      X71884       A21(93)
A24+                   A24           VK2      X71885       A24(93)
A25+                   A25           VK1      X71885       A25(93)
A28+                   A28           VK2      X12692       A28(81)
A2b/A2c+               A2            VK2      U41643       A2b(109)/A2c(110)
A30/SG3+               A30           VK1      X72808       A30(92)/SG3(99)
A5+                    A5            VK2      X12689       A5(81)
A6+                    A6            VK3      X71886       A6(93)
A8+                    A8            VK2      X71887       A8(93)
A9+                    A9            VK1      X71887       A9(93)
B1+                    B1            VK7      X12682       B1(79)
Chr1                   Orph-C1       VK1      M20809       Chr1(80)
Chr22-1                Orph-C22      VK1      Z00040       Chr22-1(76)
Chr22-2                Orph-C22      VK3      Z00042       Chr22-2(76)
Chr22-3                Orph-C22      VK2      Z00041       Chr22-3(76)
DPK1/O18...+           O18/O8        VK1      X93620       DPK1(94)/O18(89)/O18a(89)/O8(89)
DPK10/L24a...+         L24           VK1      X93628       DPK10(94)/L24a(92)/V13(69)
DPK11/O14...+          O14/O4        VK1      X93629       DPK11(94)/O14(88)/O4(88)/DILp1(106)/LFVK19H(96)
DPK12/A2+              A2            VK2      X93630       DPK12(94)/A2(85)
DPK13/O11...+          O11/O1        VK2      X93631       DPK13(94)/O11(88)/O1(88)
DPK14                  -             VK2      Z27499       DPK14(94)
DPK15/A19...+          A19/A3        VK2      X93632       DPK15(94)/A19(90)/A3(81)/RR25gl(101)
DPK16/A23+             A23           VK2      X93633       DPK16(94)/A23(81)
DPK17/A7+              A7            VK2      X93634       DPK17(94)/A7(90)
DPK18/A17+             A17           VK2      X93635       DPK18(94)/A17(90)
DPK19/A1+              A1            VK2      X93636       DPK19(94)/A1(90)
DPK2/L14+              L14           VK1      Z27498       DPK2(94)/L14(92)
DPK20/A11...+          A11           VK3      X93637       DPK20(94)/A11(81)/humkv305(75)
DPK21/humkv328h5+      L2            VK3      X93638       DPK21(94)/humkv328h5(84)
DPK22/A27...+          A27           VK3      X93639       DPK22(94)/A27(81)/VKRF(VKhumkv325)(77)/humkv321(75)
DPK23/L25...+          L25/Orph-C2   VK3      Z27500       DPK23(94)/L25(92)/V268a(97)
DPK24/VkIVKlob...+     B3            VK4      X93640       DPK24(94)/VKIVKlob(72)/VKIVTimmers(104)/kvm148(61)/FSA10gl(101)
DPK25/A14+             A14           VK6      X93641       DPK25(94)/A14(82)
DPK26/A26...+          A26/A10       VK6      X93642       DPK26(94)/A26(90)/A10(82)
DPK27/A29+             A29           VK2      X93643       DPK27(94)/A29(90)
DPK28/A18+             A18           VK2      X93644       DPK28(94)/A18(90)
DPK29/A22+             A22           VK3      X93645       DPK29(94)/A22(105)
DPK3/L11+              L11           VK1      X93621       DPK3(94)/L11(89)
DPK30/V52+             A4            VK1      X93646       DPK30(94)/V52(69)
DPK31/Va+              L4            VK1      X93647       DPK31(94)/Va(71)
DPK32/W2               Orph-C2       VK2      X93648       DPK32(94)/W2(87)
DPK33/W8...            Orph-C2       VK2      X93649       DPK33(94)/W8(87)/W10(87)
DPK34/Z2               -             VK1      X93650       DPK34(94)/Z2(91)
DPK35/A15...+          A15           VK1      X93651       DPK35(94)/A15(93)/HK100(67)
DPK36/Chr22-4          Orph-C22      VK2      X93652       DPK36(94)/Chr22-4(80)
DPK37                  -             VK1      Z27501       DPK37(94)
DPK4/A20+              A20           VK1      X93622       DPK4(94)/A20(90)
DPK5/Vb+               L5            VK1      X93623       DPK5(94)/Vb(71)
DPK6/Vb''+             L19           VK1      X93624       DPK6(94)/Vb''(73)
DPK7/HK134...+         L15           VK1      X93625       DPK7(94)/HK134(68)/HK166(68)
DPK8/Vd+               L8            VK1      X93626       DPK8(94)/Vd(71)
DPK9/O12...+           O12/O2        VK1      X93627       DPK9(94)/O12(88)/O2(88)
EV15+                  B2            VK5      X02485       EV15(74)
HK101/HK146...+        L15           VK1      V00558       HK101(67)/HK146(68)/HK189(68)
HK102/V1+              L12           VK1      J00245       HK102(67)/V1(69)
HK137+                 L1            VK1      J00248       HK137(68)
humkv329+              L16           VK3      M23091       humkv329(84)
L10a+                  L10           VK3      X72812       L10a(92)
L12a/PCRdil6-5+        L12           VK1      X72813       L12a(92)/PCRdil6-5(108)
L13+                   L13           VK2      X72814       L13(92)
L16/humkv31es...+      L16           VK3      X72815       L16(92)/humkv31es(102)/humkv328h2(84)/humkv328(84)
L17+                   L17           VK2      X72811       L17(92)
L22+                   L22           VK1      X72816       L22(92)
L23/L23a+              L23           VK1      X72817       L23(92)/L23a(92)
L3+                    L3            VK2      X72810       L3(92)
LFVK431                -             VK1      X92332       LFVK431(96)
LFVK5/Z0...            -             VK1      X92333       LFVK5(96)/Z0(111)/[LFVK18e(96)]
O10+                   O10           VK3      X71896       O10(93)
O13+                   O13           VK2      X71888       O13(93)
O15+                   O15           VK2      X71889       O15(93)
O16+                   O16           VK1      X71890       O16(93)
O17/O7+                O17/O7        VK3      X71891       O17(93)/O7(93)
O3+                    O3            VK2      X71892       O3(93)
O5+                    O5            VK2      X71893       O5(93)
O6+                    O6            VK1      X71894       O6(93)
O9+                    O9            VK1      X71896       O9(93)
V108                   Orph-C2       VK1      X51887       V108(86)
V118/LFVK18e           -             VK1      M20812       V118(80)/[LFVK18e(96)]
V14                    Orph-C22      VK1      Z00003       V14(69)
V2                     Orph-C22      VK1      Z00002       V2(69)
V268                   Orph-C2       VK3      X74459       V268(97)
V3a+                   O11           VK2      X59317       V3a(88)
V3b+                   O12           VK1      X59318       V3b(88)
V55+                   O6 or O16     VK1      Z00005       V55(69)
Va''+                  L18           VK1      X17262       Va''(73)
Va'+                   L4 or L18     VK1      Z00006       Va'(71)
Vb'+                   L5 or L19     VK1      V01576       Vb'(71)
Vc''+                  L21           VK2      X17265       Vc''(73)
Vc+                    L7            VK2      Z00012       Vc(71)
Ve+                    L9            VK1      Z00014       Ve(71)
Vg"/13K11...+          L20           VK3      X17264       Vg''(73)/13K11(100)/13K12(100)/13K09m(100m)
Vg/38K...+             L6            VK3      X01668       Vg(70)/38K(107)/13K20(100)/13K23(100)
Vh+                    L10           VK3      X02725       Vh(70)
W1/W1a                 Orph-C2       VK2      X05101       W1(78)/W1a(95)
W3                     Orph-C2       VK1      X05102       W3(78)
W4/W7                  Orph-C2       VK2      X51883       W4(87)/W7(87)
W5                     Orph-C2       VK3      X51882       W5(87)
W6                     Orph-C2       VK1      X05103       W6(78)
W9/W11                 Orph-C2       VK1      X51879       W9(87)/W11(87)
Z1                     -             VK1      M20813       Z1(83)
Z3                     -             VK1      X64641       Z3(91)
Z4                     -             VK1      X64642       Z4(91)

JK Sequences

                                              number of 
1.V BASE entry        2.Locus     3.Family   first named   5.Compiled sequences
JK1                    1             JK1      J00242       JK1(142)
JK2                    2             JK2      J00242       JK2(142)
JK3                    3             JK3      J00242       JK3(142)
JK4                    4             JK4      J00242       JK4(142)
JK5                    5             JK5      J00242       JK5(142)

VL Sequences

                                              number of 
1.V BASE entry        2.Locus     3.Family   first named   5.Compiled sequences
10a.872F9+             10a           VL10     Z73676       10a.872F9(133)
10b.4E7/V1-25P+        10b           VL10     Z73651       10b.4E7(133)/V1-25P(134)
1a.11.2/DPL1...+       1a            VL1      Z73653       1a.11.2(133)/DPL1(112)/V1-11(134)lv1c2(54)/lv1L1a(54)/lv1c2c(54)
1b.366F5/DPL5...+      1b            VL1      Z73661       1b.366F5(133)/DPL5(112)/V1-19(134)/lv117d(119)
1c.10.2/DPL2...+       1c            VL1      Z73654       1c.10.2(133)/DPL2(112)/V1-16(134)/lv1L1(117)
1d.8.3/DPL4...+        1d            VL1      Z73655       1d.8.3(133)/DPL4(112)/VL1.1(115)/lv1041(117)
1e.10.2/DPL8...+       1e            VL1      Z73656       1e.10.2(133)/DPL8(112)/V1-13(134)/lv1042(117)
1f.366F5/DPL9...+      1f            VL1      Z73662       1f.366F5(133)/DPL9(112)/V1-18(134)/lv101(117)
1g.400B5/DPL3...+      1g            VL1      Z73663       1g.400B5(133)/DPL3(112)/lv122(117)
2a1.51E6/DPL15...+     2a1           VL2      Z73641       2a1.51E6(133)/DPL15(112)/V1-1P(134)/lv2120(130)
2a2.272A12/DPL11...+   2a2           VL2      Z73664       2a2.272A12(133)/DPL11(112)/V1-4(134)/lv215.23(130)
2b1.22E4/V1-8P+        2b1           VL2      X97466       2b1.22E4(133)/V1-8P(134)
2b2.400B5+             2b2           VL2      Z73665       2b2.400B5(133)
2c.118D9/V1-2+         2c            VL2      X97462       2c.118D9(133)/V1-2(134)
2d.29D11/DPL13...+     2d            VL2      X73642       2d.29D11(133)/DPL13(112)/V1-5(134)/lv2132(130)
2e.2.2/V1-3+           2e            VL3      Z73657       2e.2.2(133)/V1-3(134)
2f.61E11/DPL14...+     2f            VL2      Z73643       2f.61E11(133)/DPL14(112)/V1-9(134)/lv2011(130)
3a.119B4/V2-11+        3a            VL3      X97471       3a.119B4(133)/V2-11(134)
3a2.51E6/V2-4P+        3a2           VL3      X97465       3a2.51E6(133)/V2-4P(134)
3b.57F5/V2-18P+        3b            VL3      X97467       3b.57F5(133)/V2-18P(134)
3c.97H8/V2-20P+        3c            VL3      Z73644       3c.97H8(133)/V2-20P(134)
3e.272A12/V2-15+       3e            VL3      Z73666       3e.272A12(133)/V2-15(134)
3f.119B4/V2-9P+        3f            VL3      X97463       3f.119B4(133)/V2-9P(134)
3g.29D11/V2-12P...+    3g            VL3      X97472       3g.29D11/V2-12P(134)/lv413(114)
3i.2.2+                3i            VL3      Z73658       3i.2.2(133)
3j.118D9/V2-6+         3j            VL3      X97473       3j.118D9(133)/V2-6(134)
3k.61E11/V2-22P+       3k            VL3      X97469       3k.61E11(133)/V2-22P(134)
3m.102D1+              3m            VL3      X97474       3m.102D1(133)
3n.118D9/V2-5P+        3n            VL3      X97470       3n.118D9(133)/V2-5P(134)
3o.75H1+               3o            VL3      Z73646       3o.75H1(133)
3p.81A4/V2-7+          3p            VL3      X97464       3p.81A4(133)/V2-7(134)
3q.127E5+              3q            VL3      X97468       3q.127E5(133)
3r.9C5/DPL23...+       3r            VL3      Z73647       3r.9C5(133)/DPL23(112)/VLIII.1(120)/V2-1(134)/BHGL1(55)/BHGL6(55)
4a.366F5+              4a            VL4      Z73667       4a.366F5(133)
4b.68B6/V5-6...+       4b            VL4      Z73648       4b.68B6(133)/V5-6(134)/IGLV8A1(124)
4c.127E5/DPL24...+     4c            VL4      Z73652       4c.127E5(133)/DPL24(112)/VLN.2(120)/V5-1(134)
5a.366F5+              5a            VL5      Z73668       5a.366F5(133)
5b.366F5/V4-4+         5b            VL5      Z73669       5b.366F5(133)/V4-4(134)
5c.366F5+              5c            VL5      Z73670       5c.366F5(133)
5c.400B5+              5c            VL5      Z73671       5c.400B5(133)
5d.75A1/V4-3+          5d            VL5      X73649       5d.75A1(133)/V4-3(134)
5e.366F5/V4-1+         5e            VL5      Z73672       5e.366F5(133)/V4-1(134)
6a.366F5/V1-22...+     6a            VL6      Z73673       6a.366F5(133)/V1-22(134)/IGLV6S1(127)/LV6SW-G(127)/VLVI-3.6(132)
7a.2.3/DPL18...+       7a            VL7      Z73659       7a.2.3(133)/DPL18(112)/VL7.1(115)/V3-2(134)/4A(116)
7b.400B5/DPL19+        7b            VL7      Z73674       7b.400B5(133)/DPL19(112)
7c.11.2/V3-1P+         7c            VL7      Z73660       7c.11.2(133)/V3-1P(134)
8a.88E1/DPL21...+      8a            VL8      Z73650       8a.88E1(133)/DPL21(112)/V3-4(134)/VL8(38)/FL7(118)/TL7(118)
9a.366F5/DPL22...+     9a            VL9      Z73675       9a.366F5(133)/DPL22(112)/lv901m(119m)
BL7                    -             VL8      U03637       BL7(118)
DPL10/V1-7...+         2b2           VL2      Z22196       DPL10(112)/V1-7(134)/lv2066(130)
DPL12+                 2e            VL2      Z22198       DPL12(112)
DPL16/VL3.1...+        3l            VL3      Z22202       DPL16(112)/VL3.1(IGLV3S1)(113,126)/V2-13(134)/lv418(114)/IGLV4BR(131)
DPL17+                 3k            VL3      Z22203       DPL17(112)
DPL20+                 7b            VL7      Z22210       DPL20(112)
DPL25                  -             VL2      Z22209       DPL25(112)
DPL6+                  1e            VL1      Z22192       DPL6(112)
DPL7/VL1.2(IGLV1S2)+   1e            VL1      Z22193       DPL7(112)/VL1.2(IGLV1S2)(121)
FL6/TL6                -             VL8      U03640       FL6(118)/TL6(118)
gVLX-4.4               -             VL10     S70116       gVLX-4.4(122)
gVLX-5.5               -             VL10     X92335       gVLX-5.5(122)
IGGLL150               -             VL3      L29165       IGGLL150(123)
IGGLL295               -             VL3      L29166       IGGLL295(123)
IGLV3S2+               3h            VL3      X71966       IGLV3S2(126)
IGLV3S3P+              3e            VL3      X71967       IGLV3S3P(126)
IGLV3S4P+              3d            VL3      X71968       IGLV3S4P(126)
IGLV3S6                -             VL3      X74288       IGLV3S6(126)
lv117/lv119+           1b            VL1      M30446       lv117(128)/lv119(117)
lv2007                 -             VL2      L27694       lv2007(130)
lv2018                 -             VL2      L27822       lv2018(130)
lv2031                 -             VL2      L27691       lv2031(130)
lv2046                 -             VL2      L27695       lv2046(130)
lv2110                 -             VL2      L27833       lv2110(130)
lv2113                 -             VL2      L27692       lv2113(130)
lv216.21               -             VL2      L27697       lv216.21(130)
lv216.376              -             VL2      L27690       lv216.376(130)
lv318                  -             VL3      M94115       lv318(114)
lv801                  -             VL4      U03868       lv801(119)
lv901e                 -             VL9      U03869       lv901e(1119e)
psiVL1                 -             VL3      X51754       psiVL1(129)
psiVLII.1+             2a1           VL2      X57825       psiVLII.1(120)
psiVLIII.2+            3a2           VL3      X57827       psiVLIII.2(120)
psiVLN.1+              3q            VL3      X57828       psiVLN.1(120)
V1-10P                 -             VL2      D87013       V1-10P(134)
V1-12Pa                -             -        D87010       V1-12Pa(134)
V1-12Pb                -             -        D87009       V1-12Pb(134)
V1-14P+                1d            VL1      D87010       V1-14P(134)
V1-15P                 -             -        D86999       V1-15P(134)
V1-17+                 1g            VL1      D87016       V1-17(134)
V1-20                  10a           VL10     D86996       V1-20(134)
V1-21P                 -             -        D86996       V1-21P(134)
V1-23P                 -             VL1      D87022       V1-23P(134)
V1-24P                 -             VL1      D87022       V1-24P(134)
V1-26P                 -             -        D86993       V1-26P(134)
V1-27P                 -             -        D86993       V1-27P(134)
V1-6P                  -             VL2      D87007       V1-6P(134)
V2-10P                 -             VL3      D87015       V2-10P(134)
V2-14+                 3h            VL3      D87007       V2-14(134)
V2-16P+                3d            VL3      D86994       V2-16P(134)
V2-17+                 3m            VL3      D86994       V2-17(134)
V2-19+                 2-19 (VL3)    VL3      D86994       V2-19(134)
V2-21P+                3o            VL3      D87014       V2-21P(134)
V2-23P/3i1.61E11+      3i1           VL3      D87014       V2-23P(134)/3i1.61E11(133)
V2-2P+                 3q            VL3      D87024       V2-2P(134)
V2-3P                  -             -        D87024       V2-3P(134)
V2-8+                  3i            VL3      D86998       V2-8(134)
V3-3+                  7b            VL7      D86999       V3-3(134)
V4-2+                  5c            VL5      D86999       V4-2(134)
V4-5P                  -             -        D86996       V4-5P(134)
V4-6                   -             -        D86996       V4-6(134)
V4-7P                  -             -        D87000       V4-7P(134)
V4-8P                  -             -        D87022       V4-8P(134)
V4-9P                  -             -        D87022       V4-9P(134)
V5-2+                  9a            VL9      D87016       V5-2(134)
V5-3P                  -             -        D87000       V5-3P(134)
V5-4+                  4a            VL4      D87000       V5-4(134)
V5-5P                  -             -        D87004       V5-5P(134)
VL2.1(IGLV2S1)+        2b2           VL2      X14616       VL2.1(IGLV2S1)(125,126)
VLA                    -             -        X14613       VLA(115)

JL Sequences

                                              number of 
1.V BASE entry        2.Locus     3.Family   first named   5.Compiled sequences
JL1                    1             JL1      X06877       JL1(143)
JL2/JL3a               1/2           JL2/3    M15641       JL2(143)/JL3a(143)
JL3b                   3             JL3      D87017       JL3b(134)
JL4                    4             JL4      X51755       JL4(129)
JL5                    5             JL5      X51755       JL5(129)
JL6a                   6             JL6      M18338       JL6a(144)
JL6b                   6             JL6      X51755       JL6b(129)
JL7                    7             JL7      X51755       JL7(129)


1. Matsuda, F., Lee, K. H., Nakai, S., Sato, T., Kodaira, M., Zong, S. Q., Ohno, H., Fukuhara, S. & Honjo, T. (1988). Dispersed localization of D segments in the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus. EMBO J., 7, 1047-1051.

2. Shin, E. K., Matsuda, F., Nagaoka, H., Fukita, Y., Imai, T., Yokoyama, K., Soeda, E. & Honjo, T. (1991). Physical map of the 3' region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus: clustering of autoantibody-related variable segments in one haplotype. EMBO J., 10, 3641-3645.

3. Berman, J. E., Mellis, S. J., Pollock, R., Smith, C. L., Suh, H., Heinke, B., Kowal, C., Surti, U., Cantor, C. R. & Alt, F. W. (1988). Content and organization of the human Ig VH locus: Definition of three new VH families and linkage to the Ig CH locus. EMBO J., 7, 727-738.

4. Kodaira, M., Kinashi, T., Umemura, I., Matsuda, F., Noma, T., Ono, Y. & Honjo, T. (1986). Organization and evolution of variable region genes of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain. J. Mol. Biol., 190, 529-541.

5. Chen, P. P., Liu, M. F., Glass, C. A., Sinha, S., Kipps, T. J. & Carson, D. A. (1989). Characterization of two immunoglobulin VH genes that are homologous to human rheumatoid factors. Arthritis Rheum., 32, 72-76.

6. Friedman, D. F., Cho, E. A., Goldman, J., Carmack, C. E., Besa, E. C., Hardy, R. R. & Silberstein, L. E. (1991). The role of clonal selection in the pathogenesis of an autoreactive human B cell lymphoma. J. Exp. Med., 174, 525-537.

7. Rechavi, G., Ram, D., Glazer, L., Zakut, R. & Givol, D. (1983). Evolutionary aspects of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) gene subgroups. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80, 855-859.

8. Buluwela, L., Albertson, D. G., Sherrington, P., Rabbitts, P. H., Spurr, N. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1988). The use of chromosomal translocations to study human immunoglobulin gene organisation: Mapping DH Segments within 35kb of the C mu gene and identification of a new DH locus, EMBO J., 7, 2003-2010.

9. Matsuda, F., Shin, E. K., Hirabayashi, Y., Nagaoka, H., Yoshida, M. C., Zong, S. Q. & Honjo, T. (1990). Organization of variable region segments of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain: duplication of the D5 cluster within the locus and interchromosomal translocation of variable region segments. EMBO J., 9, 2501-2506.

10. Baer, R., Forster, A., Lavenir, I. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1988). Immunoglobulin VH genes are transcribed by T cells in association with a new 5' exon. J. Exp. Med., 167, 2011-2016.

11. Olee, T., Yang, P. M., Siminovitch, K. A., Olsen, N. J., Hillson, J., Wu, J., Kozin, F., Carson, D. A. & Chen, P. P. (1991). Molecular basis of an autoantibody-associated restriction fragment length polymorphism that confers susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. J. Clin. Invest., 88, 193-203.

12. Chen, P. P. (1990). Structural analyses of human developmentally regulated VH3 genes. Scand. J. Immunol., 31, 257-267.

13. Pascual, V., Randen, I., Thompson, K., Sioud, M., Forre, O., Natvig, J. & Capra, J. D. (1990). The complete nucleotide sequences of the heavy chain variable regions of six monospecific rheumatoid factors derived from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells isolated from the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Further evidence that some autoantibodies are unmutated copies of germ line genes. J. Clin. Invest., 86, 1320-1328.

14. Chen, P. P., Liu, M. F., Sinha, S. and Carson, D. A. (1988). A 16/6 idiotype-positive anti-DNA antibody is encoded by a conserved VH gene with no somatic mutation. Arthritis Rheum., 31, 1429-1431.

15. Rechavi, G., Bienz, B., Ram, D., Ben, N. Y., Cohen, J. B., Zakut, R. & Givol, D. (1982). Organization and evolution of immunoglobulin VH gene subgroups. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79, 4405-4409.

16. van Es, J. H., Gmelig Meyling, F. H. J., van de Akker, W. R. M., Aanstoot, H., Derksen, R. H. W. M. & Logtenberg, T. (1991). Somatic mutations in the variable regions of a human IgG anti-double-stranded DNA autoantibody suggest a role for antigen in the induction of systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Exp. Med., 173, 461-470.

17. Sanz, I., Kelly, P., Williams, C., Scholl, S., Tucker, P. & Capra, J. D. (1989). The smaller human VH gene families display remarkably little polymorphism. EMBO J., 8, 3741-3748.

18. Lee, K. H., Matsuda, F., Kinashi, T., Kodaira, M. & Honjo, T. (1987). A novel family of variable region genes of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain. J. Mol. Biol., 195, 761-768.

19. Baer, R., Chen, K. C., Smith, S. D. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1985). Fusion of an immunoglobulin variable gene and a T cell receptor constant gene in the chromosome 14 inversion associated with T cell tumors. Cell, 43, 705-713.

20. Denny, C. T., Yoshikai, Y., Mak, T. W., Smith, S. D., Hollis, G. F. & Kirsch, I. R. (1986). A chromosome 14 inversion in a T-cell lymphoma is caused by site-specific recombination between immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor loci. Nature, 320, 549-551.

21. Chen, P. P. & Yang, P. M. (1990). A segment of human VH gene locus is duplicated. Scand. J. Immunol., 31, 593-599.

22. Shen, A., Humphries, C., Tucker, P. & Blattner, F. (1987). Human heavy-chain variable region gene family nonrandomly rearranged in familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84, 8563-8567.

23. Matthyssens, G. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1980). Structure and multiplicity of genes for the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 77, 6561-6565.

24. Buluwela, L. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1988). A VH gene is located within 95 Kb of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes. Eur. J. Immunol., 18, 1843-1845.

25. Takahashi, N., Noma, T. & Honjo, T. (1984). Rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) pseudogene that deletes the second complementarity-determining region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81, 5194-5198.

26. Humphries, C. G., Shen, A., Kuziel, W. A., Capra, J. D., Blattner, F. R. & Tucker, P. W. (1988). A new human immunoglobulin VH family preferentially rearranged in immature B-cell tumours. Nature, 331, 446-449.

27. Turnbull, I. F., Bernard, O., Sriprakash, K. S. & Mathews, J. D. (1987). Human immunoglobulin variable region genes: a new VH sequence used to detect polymorphism. Immunogenetics, 25, 184-192.

28. Campbell, M. J., Zelenetz, A. D., Levy, S. & Levy, R. (1992). Use of family-specific primers for PCR amplification of the human heavy chain variable gene repertoire. Mol. Immunol., 29, 193-203.

29. Ikematsu, H., Harindranath, N. and Casali, P. (1992). Somatic mutations in the VH genes of high-affinity antibodies to self and foreign antigens produced by human CD5+ and CD5- B lymphocytes. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci., 651, 319-327.

30. KŸppers, R., Fischer, U., Rajewsky, K. and Gause, A. (1992). Immunglobulin heavy and light chain gene sequences of a human CD5 positive immunocytoma and sequences of four novel VHIII germline genes. Immunology Letters, 34, 57-62.

31. Olee, T., Lu, E. W., Huang, D. -F., Soto-Gil, R. W., Deftos, M., Kozin, F., Carson, D. A. & Chen, P. P. (1992). Genetic analysis of self-associating immunoglobulin G rheumatoid factors from two rheumatoid synovia implicates an antigen driven response. J. Exp. Med., 175, 831-842.

32. Sasso, E. H., Willems van Dijk, K., Bull, A., van der Maarel, S. M. & Milner, E. C. B. (1992). VH genes in tandem array comprise a repeated germline motif. J. Immunol., 149, 1230-1236.

33. Soto-Gil, R. W., Olee, T., Klink, B. K., Kenny, T. P., Robbins, D. L., Carson, D. A. & Chen, P. P. (1992). A systematic approach to defining the germline gene counterparts of a mutated autoantibody from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum., 35, 356-363.

34. Tomlinson, I. M., Walter, G., Marks, J. D., Llewelyn, M. B. & Winter, G. (1992). The repertoire of human germline VH segments reveals about fifty groups of VH segments with different hypervariable loops. J. Mol. Biol., 227, 776-798.

35. van Es, J. H., Heutink, M., Aanstoot, H. & Logtenberg, T. (1992). Sequence analysis of members of the human Ig VH4 gene family derived from a single VH locus. J. Immunol., 149, 492-497.

36. van Es, J. H., Aanstoot, H., Gmelig-Meyling, F. H.J ., Derksen, R. H. W. M. & Logtenberg, T. (1992). A human systemic lupus erythematosus-related anti-cardiolipin/single-stranded DNA autoantibody is encoded by a somatically mutated variant of the developmentally restricted 51p1 VH gene. J. Immunol., 149, 2234-2240.

37. Weng, N., Snyder, J. G., Yu-Lee, L. & Marcus, D. M. (1992). Polymorphism of human immunoglobulin VH4 germ-line genes. Eur J. Immunol., 22, 1075-1082.

38. Winkler, T. H., Fehr, H. & Kalden, J. R. (1992). Analysis of immunoglobulin variable region genes from human IgG anti-DNA hybridomas. Eur. J. Immunol., 22, 1719-1728.

39. Zelenetz, A. D., Chen, T. T. & Levy, R. (1992). Clonal expansion in follicular lymphoma occurs subsequent to antigenic selection. J. Exp. Med., 176, 1137-1148.

40. Adderson, E. E, Azmi, F. H., Wilson, P. M., Shackelford, P. G. & Carroll., W. L. (1993). The human VH3b gene subfamily is highly polymorphic. J. Immunol., 151, 800-809.

41. Andris, J. S., Brodeur, B. R. & Capra, J. D. (1993). Molecular characterization of human antibodies to bacterial antigens: Utilization of the less frequently expressed VH2 and VH6 heavy chain variable region gene families. Mol. Immunol., 30, 1601-1616.

42. Cuisinier, A. -M., Gauthier, L., Boubli, L., Fougereau, M. & Tonnelle, C. (1993). Mechanisms that generate human immunoglobulin diversity operate from the 8th week of gestation in fetal liver. Eur. J. Immunol., 23, 110-118.

43. Matsuda, F., Shin, E. K., Nagaoka, H., Matsumara, R., Haino, M., Fukita, Y., Taka-ishi, S., Imai, T., Riley, J. H., Anand, R., Soeda, E. & Honjo, T. (1993). Structure and physical map of 64 variable segments in the 3' 0.8-megabase region of the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus. Nature Genetics, 3, 88-94 .

44. Sasso, E. H., Willems van Dijk, K., Bull, A. P. & Milner, E. C. B. (1993). A fetally expressed immunoglobulin VH1 gene belongs to a complex set of alleles. J. Clin. Invest., 91, 2358-2367.

45. van der Maarel, S., Willems van Dijk, K., Alexander, C. M., Sasso, E. H., Bull, A. & Milner, E. C. B. (1993). Chromosomal organisation of the human VH4 gene family. J. Immunol., 150, 2858-2868.

46. Willems van Dijk, K., Mortari, F., Kirkham, P. M., Schroeder, H. W. & Milner, E. C. B. (1993). The human immunoglobulin VH7 gene family consists of a small, polymorphic group of six to eight gene segments dispersed throughout the VH locus. Eur. J. Immunol., 23, 832-839.

47. Yang, P. -M., Olee, T., Carson, D. A. & Chen, P. P. (1993). Characterization of two highly homologous autoantibody-related VH1 genes in humans. Scand. J. Immunol., 37, 504-508.

48. Cook, G. P., Tomlinson, I. M., Walter, G., Riethman, H., Carter, N. P., Buluwela, L., Winter, G. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1994). A map of the human immunoglobulin VH locus completed by analysis of the telomeric region of chromosome 14q. Nature Genetics, 7, 162-168.

49. Tomlinson, I. M., Cook, G. P., Carter, N. P., Elaswarapu, R., Smith, S., Walter, G., Buluwela, L., Rabbitts, T. H. & Winter, G. (1994). Human immunoglobulin VH and D segments on chromosomes 15q11.2 and 16p11.2. Human Molec. Genetics, 3, 853-860.

50. Nagaoka,H., Ozawa,K., Matsuda,F., Hayashida,H., Matsumura,R., Haino,M., Shin,E.K., Fukita,Y., Imai,T., Anand,R.,Yokoyama,K., Eki,T., Soeda,E. & Honjo,T. (1994). Recent translocation of variable and diversity segments of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain from chromosome 14 to chromosomes 15 and 16. Genomics, 22, 189-197.

51. Tomlinson, I. al., unpublished data.

52. Berman, J. E., Humphries, C. G., Barth, J., Alt, F. W. & Tucker, P. W. (1991). Structure and expression of human germline VH transcripts. J. Exp. Med., 173, 1529-1535.

53. Schroeder, H. W., Walter, M. A., Hofker, M. H, Ebens, A., Willems van Dijk, K., Liao, L. C., Cox, D. W., Milner, E. C. B. & Perlmutter, R. M. (1988). Physical linkage of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene segment to diversity and joining region elements. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85, 8196-8200.

54. Deftos, M., Olee, T., Carson, D. A. & Chen, P. P. (1994). Defining the genetic origins of three rheumatoid synovium-derived IgG rheumatoid factors. J. Clin. Invest., 93, 2545-2553.

55. Harmer, I. J., Loizou, S., Thompson, K. M., So, A. K. L., Walport, M. J. & Mackworth-Young, C. G. (1995). A human monoclonal anti-phospholipid antibody that is representative of serum antibodies and is germline encoded. Arthritis Rheum., 38, 1068-1076.

56. Denny, C. T., Hollis, G. F., Hecht, F., Morgan, R., Link, M. P., Smith, S. D. & Kirsch, I. R. (1986). Common mechanism of chromosome inversion in B- and T-cell tumors: Relevance to lymphoid development. Science, 234, 197-200.

57. Ikematsu, H., Ichiyoshi, Y., Schettino, E. W., Nakamura, M. & Casali, P. (1994). VH and V kappa segment structure of anti-insulin IgG autoantibodies in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Evidence for somatic selection. J. Immunol., 152, 1430-1441.

58. Ikematsu, H., Kasaian, M. T., Schettino, E. W. & Casali, P. (1994). Structural analysis of the VH-D-JH segments of human polyreactive IgG mAb. J. Immunol., 151, 3604-3616.

59. Rubinstein, D. B., Schwartz, R. S., Guilluame, T., Leblanc, P. & Stewart, A. K. (1994). Germline complexity, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and coding region sequences of the human VH7 gene family identified with family-specific FR3 segment oligonucleotides. Mol. Immunol., 31, 713-721.

60. Crouzier, R., Martin, T. & Pasquali, J.-L. (1995). Monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor secreted by CD5-negative B cells during mixed cryoglobulinemia. J. Immunol., 154, 412-421.

62. Brezinschek, H. P., Brezinschek, R. I. and Lipsky, P. (1995). Analysis of the heavy chain repertoire of human peripheral B cells using single-cell polymerase chain reaction. J. Immunol., 155, 190-202.

63. Vescio, R. A., Cao, J., Hong, C. H., Lee, J. C. , Wu, C. H., der Danielian, M., Wu, V., Newman, R., Lichtenstein, A. K. & Berenson, J. R. (1995). Myeloma Ig heavy chain V region sequences reveal prior antigenic selection and marked somatic mutation but no intraclonal diversity. J. Immunol., 155, 2487-2497.

64. Sasso, E. H., Buckner, J. H. & Suzuki, L. A. (1995). Ethnic differences in polymorphism of an immunoglobulin VH3 gene. J. Clin. Invest., 96, 1591-1600.

65. Dunn-Walters, D. K., Isaacson, P. G. & Spencer, J. (1996). A new human IghV4.21-related pseudogene capable of VDJ rearrangement. Immunogenetics, 43, 321-322.

66. Wong, A., Tait, R., Kenny, T., Gorin, F. & Robbins, D. (1995). A subgroup of human VH3 germline genes that encode a high-avidity synovial rheumatoid factor. Autoimmunity, 20, 191-199.

67. Bentley, D. L. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1980). Human immunoglobulin variable region genes-DNA sequences of two V kappa genes and a pseudogene. Nature, 288, 730-733.

68. Bentley, D. L. & Rabbitts, T. H. (1983). Evolution of immunoglobulin V genes: Evidence indicating that recently duplicated human V kappa sequences have diverged by gene conversion. Cell, 32, 181-189.

69. Jaenichen, H. -R., Pech, M., Lindenmaier, W., Wildgruber, N. & Zachau, H. G. (1984). Composite human V kappa genes and a model of their evolution. Nucleic Acids Res., 12, 5249-5263.

70. Pech, M. & Zachau, H. G. (1984). Immunoglobulin genes of different subgroups are interdigitated within the V kappa locus. Nucleic Acids Res., 12, 9229-9236.

71. Pech, M., Jaenichen, H. -R., Pohlenz, H. -D., Neumaier, P. S., Klobeck, H. -G. & Zachau, H. G. (1984). Organization and evolution of a gene cluster for human immunoglobulin variable regions of the kappa type. J. Mol. Biol., 176, 189-204.

72. Klobeck, H. -G., Bornkamm, G. W., Combriato, G., Mocikat, R., Pohlenz, H. -D. & Zachau, H. G. (1985). Subgroup IV of human immunoglobulin K light chains is encoded by a single germline gene. Nucleic Acids Res., 13, 6515-6529.

73. Pech, M., Smola, H., Pohlenz, H. -D., Straubinger, B., Gerl, R. & Zachau, H. G. (1985). A large section of the gene locus encoding human immunoglobulin variable regions of the kappa type is duplicated. J. Mol. Biol., 183, 291-299.

74. Stavnezer, J., Kekish, O., Batter, D., Grenier, J., Balazs, I., Henderson, E. & Zegers, B. J. (1985). Aberrant recombination events in B cell lines derived from a kappa-deficient human. Nucleic Acids Res., 13, 3495-3514.

75. Chen, P. P., Albrandt, K., Orida, N. K., Radoux, V., Chen, E. Y., Schrantz, R., Liu, F. T. & Carson, D. A. (1986). Genetic basis for the cross-reactive idiotypes on the light chains of human IgM anti-IgG antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83, 8318-8322.

76. Lotscher, E., Grzeschik, K. -H., Bauer, H. G., Pohlenz, H. -D., Straubinger, B. & Zachau, H. G. (1986). Dispersed human immunoglobulin kappa light-chain genes. Nature, 320, 456-458.

77. Radoux, V., Chen, P. P., Sorge, J. A. & Carson, D. A. (1986). A conserved human germline V kappa gene directly encodes rheumatoid factor light chains. J. Exp. Med., 164, 2119-2124.

78. Pohlenz, H. -D., Straubinger, B., Thiebe, R., Pech, M., Zimmer, F. -J. & Zachau, H. G. (1987). The human V kappa locus. Characterization of extended immunoglobulin gene regions by cosmid cloning. J. Mol. Biol., 193, 241-253.

79. Lorenz, W., Schable, K. F., Thiebe, R., Stavnezer, J. & Zachau, H. G. (1988). The J kappa proximal region of the human K locus contains three uncommon V kappa genes which are arranged in opposite transcriptional polarities. Mol. Immunol., 25, 479-484.

80. Lotscher, E., Zimmer, F. -J., Klopstock, T., Grzeschik, K. -H., Jaenichen, R., Straubinger, B. & Zachau, H. G. (1988). Localization, analysis and evolution of transposed human immunoglobulin V kappa genes. Gene, 69, 215-223.

81. Straubinger, B., Huber, E., Lorenz, W., Osterholzer, E., Pargent, W., Pech, M., Pohlenz, H. -D., Zimmer, F. -J. & Zachau, H. G. (1988). The human V kappa locus. Characterization of a duplicated region encoding 28 different immunoglobulin genes. J. Mol. Biol., 199, 23-34.

82. Straubinger, B., Thiebe, R., Huber, C., Osterholzer, E. & Zachau, H. G. (1988). Two unusual human immunoglobulin V kappa genes. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler, 369, 601-607.

83. Straubinger, B., Thiebe, R., Pech, M. & Zachau, H. G. (1988). The Z family, a group of transposed human immunoglobulin V kappa genes. Gene, 69, 209-214.

84. Liu, M. -F., Robbins, D. L., Crowley, J. J., Sinha, S., Kozin, F., Kipps, T. J., Carson, D. A. & Chen, P. P. (1989). Characterization of four homologous L chain variable region genes that are related to 6B6.6 idiotype positive human rheumatoid factor L chains. J. Immunol., 142, 688-694.

85. Scott, M. G., Crimmins, D. L., McCourt, D. W., Zocher, I., Thiebe, R., Zachau, H. G. & Nahm, M. H. (1989). Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. III. A single V kappa II gene and one of several J kappa genes are joined by an invariant arginine to form the most common L chain V region. J. Immunol., 143, 4110-4116.

86. Huber, C., Thiebe, R., Hameister, H., Smola, H., Lotscher, E. & Zachau, H. G. (1990). A human immunoglobulin kappa orphon without sequence defects may be the product of a pericentric inversion. Nucleic Acids Res., 18, 3475-3478.

87. Zimmer, F. -J., Huber, C., Quenzel, M., Schek, H., Stiller, C., Thiebe, R. & Zachau, H. G. (1990). Evolution of a group of transposed human V kappa genes. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler, 371, 283-290.

88. Pargent, W., Meindl, A., Thiebe, R., Mitzel, S. & Zachau, H. G. (1991). The human immunoglobulin kappa locus. Characterization of the duplicated O regions. Eur. J. Immunol., 21, 1821-1827.

89. Scott, M. G., Crimmins, D. L., McCourt, D. W., Chung, G., Schable, K. F., Thiebe, R., Quenzel, E. -M., Zachau, H. G. & Nahm, M. H. (1991). Clonal characterization of the human IgG antibody repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. IV. The less frequently expressed VL are heterogenous. J. Immunol., 147, 4007-4013.

90. Lautner-Rieske, A., Huber, C., Meindl, A., Pargent, W., Schable, K. F., Thiebe, R., Zocher, I. & Zachau, H. G. (1992). The human immunoglobulin kappa locus. Characterization of the duplicated A regions. Eur. J. Immunol., 22, 1023-1029.

91. Roschenthaler, F., Schable, K. F., Thiebe, R. & Zachau, H. G. (1992). Of orphons and UHOs: Delimitation of the germline repertoire of human immunoglobulin kappa genes. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler, 373, 177-186.

92. Huber, C., Schable, H. F., Huber, E., Klein, R., Meindl, A., Thiebe, R., Lamm, R. & Zachau, H. G. (1993). The V kappa genes of the L regions and the repetoire of V kappa gene sequences in the human germ line. Eur. J. Immunol., 23, 2868-2875.

93. Schable, H. F., Thiebe, R., FlŸgel, A., Meindl, A., & Zachau, H. G. (1994). The human immunoglobulin kappa locus: Pseudogenes, unique and repetitive sequences. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler, 375, 189-199.

94. Cox, J. P. L., Tomlinson, I. M. & Winter, G. (1994). A directory of human germ-line V kappa segments reveals a strong bias in their usage. Eur. J. Immunol., 24, 827-836.

95. Schable, K. F. & Zachau, H. G. (1993). The variable genes of the human immunoglobulin kappa locus. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler, 374, 1001-1022.

96. L. Foroni, personal communication

97. Huber, C., Thiebe, R. & Zachau, H. G. (1994). A potentially functional V kappa gene at a distance of 1.5 Mb from the immunoglobulin kappa locus. Genomics, 22, 213-215.

98. Youngblood, K., Fruchter, L., Ding, G., Lopez, J., Bonagura, V. & Davidson, A. (1994). Rheumatoid factors from the peripheral blood of two patients with rheumatoid arthritis are genetically heterogeneous and somatically mutated. J. Clin. Invest., 93, 852-861.

99. Harada, T., Suzuki, N., Mizushima, Y. & Sakane, T. (1994). Usage of a novel class of germ-line Ig variable region gene for cationic anti-DNA autoantibodies in human lupus nephritis and its role for the development of the disease. J. Immunol., 153, 4806-4815.

100. Ichiyoshi, Y., Zhou, M. & Casali., P. (1995). A human anti-insulin IgG autoantibody apparently arises through clonal selection from an insulin-specific "germ-line" natural antibody template. J. Immunol., 154, 226-228.

101. Giachino, C., Padovan, E. & Lanzavecchia, A. (1995). kappa+lambda+ dual receptor B cells are present in the human peripheral repertoire. J. Exp. Med., 181, 1245-1250.

102. Chen, P. P., Robbins, D. L., Jirik, F. R., Kipps, T. J. & Carson, D. A. (1987). Isolation and charcaterization of a light chain variable region gene for human rheumatoid factors. J. Exp. Med., 166, 1900-1905.

103. Chen, P. P., Albrandt, K., Kipps, T. J., Radoux, V., Liu, F. -T. & Carson, D. A. (1987). Isolation and characterisation of human VkIII germ-line genes: Implications for the molecular basis of human VkIII light chain diversity. J. Immunol., 139, 1727-1733.

104. Timmers, E., Hermans, M. M., Kraakman, M. E. M., Hendriks, R. W. & Schuurman, R. K. B. (1993). Diversity of immunoglobulin kappa light chain gene rearrangements and evidence for somatic mutation in V kappa IV family gene segments in X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Eur. J. Immunol., 23, 619-624.

105. Straubinger, B., Osterholzer, E. & Zachau, H. G. (1987). Three transposed elements in the intron of a human Vk immunoglobulin gene. Nucleic. Acids Res., 15, 9567-9575.

106. Manheimer-Lory, A., Katz, J. B., Pillinger, M., Ghossein, C., Smith, A. & Diamond, B. (1991). Molecular characteristics of antibodies bearing an anti-DNA-associated idiotype. J. Exp. Med., 174, 1639-1652.

107. Victor, K. D., Randen, I., Thompson, K., Forre, O., Natvig, J. B., Fu, S. M. & Capra, J. D. (1991). Rheumatoid factors isolated from patients with autoimmune disorders are derived from germline genes distinct from those encoding the Wa, Po, and Bla cross-reactive idiotypes. J. Clin. Invest., 87, 1603-1613.

108. Manheimer-Lory, A., Monhian, R., Splaver, A., Gaynor, B. & Diamond, B. (1995). Analysis of the VkI family: Germline genes from an SLE patient and expressed autoantibodies. Autoimmunity, 20, 259-265.

109. Feeney, A. J., Atkinson, M. J., Cowan, M. J., Escuro, G. & Lugo, G. (1996). A defective V kappa A2 allele in Navajos which may play a role in increased susceptibility to Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. J. Clin. Invest., 97, 2277-2282.

110. Atkinson, M. J., Cowan, M. J. & Feeney, A. J. (1996). New alleles of IGKV genes A2 and A18 suggest significant human IGKV locus polymorphism. Immunogenetics, 44, 115-120.

111. Brensing-Kueppers, J. , Zocher, I. , Thiebe, R. & Zachau, H. G. (1997). The human immunoglobulin kappa locus on yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). Gene, 191, 173-181.

112. Williams, S. C. & Winter, G. (1993). Cloning and sequencing of human immunoglobulin V lambda gene segments. Eur. J. Immunol., 23, 1456-1461.

113. Frippiat, J. -P., Chuchana, P., Bernard, F., Buluwela, L., Lefranc, G. & Lefranc, M. -P. (1990). First genomic sequence of a human Ig variable lambda gene belonging to subgroup III. Nucl. Acids Res., 18, 7134-7134.

114. Daley, M. D., Olee, T., Peng, H. -Q., Soto-Gil, R. W., Chen, P. P. & Siminovitch, K.A. (1992). Molecular analysis of human immunoglobulin V lambda germline genes: Subgroups V lambda III and V lambda IV. Mol. Immunol., 29, 1515-1518.

115. Alexandre, D., Chuchana, P., Brockly, F., Blancher, A., Lefranc, G. & Lefranc, M. -P. (1989). First genomic sequence of a human Ig variable lambda gene belonging to subgroup I. Functional genes, pseudogenes and vestigial sequences are interspersed in the IGLV locus. Nucl. Acids Res., 17, 3975-3975.

116. Anderson, M. L. M., Szajnert, M. F., Kaplan, J. C., McColl, L. & Young, B. D. (1984). The isolation of a human Ig V lambda gene from a recombinant library of chromosome 22 and estimation of its copy number. Nucl. Acids Res., 12, 6647-6661.

117. Daley, M. D., Olee, T., Peng, H.-Q., Soto-Gil, R. W., Chen, P. P. & Siminovitch, K.A.(1992). Molecular characterisation of the human immunoglobulin V lambda I germline gene repertoire. Mol. Immunol., 29, 1031-1042.

118. Lee, G., Ware, R. R. & Latov, N. (1994). Somatically mutated member of the human V-lambda VIII gene family encodes anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity. J. Neuroimmunology, 51, 45-52.

119. Deftos, M., Soto-Gil, R., Quan, M., Olee, T. & Chen, P. P. (1994). Utilisation of a potentially universal downstream primer in the rapid identification and characterisation of V lambda genes from two new human V lambda gene families. Scand. J. Immunol., 39, 95-103.

120. Combriato, G. & Klobeck, H. -G. (1991). V lambda and J lambda - C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda chain locus are separated by 14kb and rearrange by a deletion mechanism. Eur. J. Immunol., 21, 1513-1522.

121. Bernard, F., Chuchana, P., Frippiat, J. -P., Bulewala, L. & Lefranc, M. -P. (1990). Genomic sequence of IGLV1S2, a human immunoglobulin variable lambda gene belonging to subgroup I. Nucl. Acids Res., 18, 7139-7139.

122. Stiernholm, N. B. J., Kuzniar, B. & Berinstein, N. L. (1994). Identification of a new V lambda gene family - V lambda X. J. Immunol., 152, 4969-4975.

123. Fang, Q., Kannapell, C. C., Gaskin, F., Solomon, A., Koopman, W. J. & Fu, S. M. (1994). Human rheumatoid factors with restrictive specificity for rabbit immunoglobulin G: auto- and multi-reactivity, diverse VH gene segment usage and preferential usage of V lambda IIIb. J. Exp. Med., 179, 1445-1456.

124. Ch'ang, L. -Y., Schnell, M. G., Ringelberg, C. S., Weiss, D. & Solomon, A. (1995). Molecular characterisation of a human V lambda VIII germline gene. Mol. Immunol., 32, 49-55.

125. Brockly, F., Alexandre, D., Chuchana, P., Huck, S., Lefranc, G. & Lefranc, M.-P. (1989). First nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin variable lambda gene belonging to subgroup II. Nucl. Acids Res., 17, 3976-3976.

126. Frippiat, J. -P. & Lefranc, M. -P. (1994). Genomic organisation of 34kb of the human immunoglobulin lambda locus (IGLV): Restriction map and sequences of new V lambda III genes. Mol. Immunol., 31, 657-670.

127. Ch'ang, L. -Y., Yen, C. -P., Besl, L., Schell, M. & Solomon, A. (1994). Identification and characterisation of a functional human Ig V lambda VI germline gene. Mol. Immunol., 31, 531-536.

128. Siminovitch, K. A., Misener, V., Kwong, P. C., Song, Q. L. & Chen, P. P. (1989). A natural autoantibody is encoded by germline heavy and lambda light chain variable regions without somatic mutation. J. Clin. Invest., 84, 1675-1678.

129. Vasicek, T. J. & Leder, P. (1990). Structure and expression of the human immunoglobulin lambda genes. J. Exp. Med., 172, 609-620.

130. Irigoyen, M., Manheimer-Lory, A., Gaynor, B. and Diamond, B. (1994). Molecular analysis of the human immunoglobulin V lambda gene family. J. Clin. Invest., 94, 532-538.

131. Eulitz, M., Zirkel, C., Ch'ang, L. -Y., Schnell, M. G., Weiss, D. T. and Solomon, A. (1995) Distinctive serological, chemical, and molecular properties of human lambda IV light chains, J. Immunol., 154, 3256-3265.

132. Stiernholm, N. B. J. & Berinstein, N. L. (1995). A mutated promotor of a human Ig V lambda gene segment is associated with reduced germ-line transcription and a low frequency of rearrangement. J. Immunol., 154, 1748-1761.

133. Williams, S. C., Frippiat, J. -P., Tomlinson, I. M., Ignatovich, O., Lefranc, M. -P. & Winter, G. (1996). Sequence and evolution of the human germline V lambda repertoire. J. Mol. Biol., 264, 220-232.

134. Kawasaki, K., Minoshima, S., Nakato, E., Shibuya, K., Shintani, A., Schmeits, J. L., Wang, J. & Shimizu, N. (1997). One-megabase sequence analysis of the human immunoglobulin lambda gene locus. Genome Res., 7, 250-261.

135. Ichihara, Y., Matsuoka, H. & Kurosawa, Y. (1988). Organisation of human immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity gene loci, EMBO J., 7, 4141-4150,

136. Siebenlist, U., Ravetch, J. V., Korsmeyer, S., Waldmann, T. & Leder, P. (1981). Human immunoglobulin D segments encoded in tandem multigenic families, Nature, 294, 631-635.

137. Zong, S. Q., Nakai, S., Matsuda, F., Lee, K. H. & Honjo, T. (1988). Human immunoglobulin D segments: Isolation of a new D segment and polymorphic deletion of the D1 Segment, Immunol. Lett., 17, 329-334.

138. Ravetch, J. V., Siebenlist, U., Korsmeyer, S., Waldmann, T. & Leder, P. (1981). Structure of the human immunoglobulin mu Locus: Characterisation of embryonic and rearranged J and D genes, Cell, 27, 583-591.

139. Corbett, S. J., Tomlinson, I. M., Sonnhammer, E. L. L., Buck, D. & Winter, G. (1997). Sequence of the human immunoglobulin diversity (D) segment locus: A systematic analysis provides no evidence for the use of DIR segments, inverted D segments, "minor" D segments or D-D recombination. J. Mol. Biol., 270, 587-597.

140. Rabbitts, T. H. (1983). The Human Immunoglobulin Genes. Biochem. Soc. Trans., 11, 119-126.

141. Mattila, P. S., Schugk, J., Wu, H. & Makela, O. (1995). Extensive allelic sequence variation in the J region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus. Eur. J. Immunol., 25, 2578-2582.

142. Hieter, P. A., Maizel, J. V. & Leder, P. (1982). Evolution of human immunoglobulin kappa J region genes, J. Biol. Chem., 257, 1516-1522.

143. Udey, J. A. & Blomberg, B. (1987). Human lambda light chain locus: Organisation and DNA sequences of three genomic J regions. Immunogenetics, 25, 63-70.

144. Dariavach, P., Lefranc, G. and Lefranc, M. -P. (1987). Human immunoglobulin C lambda 6 gene encodes the Kern+Oz- lambda chain and C lambda 4 and C lambda 5 are pseudogenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84, 9074-9078.

145. Ignatovich, O., Tomlinson, I. M., Jones, P. T. & Winter, G. (1997). The creation of diversity in the human immunoglobulin V lambda repertoire , J. Mol. Biol., 268, 69-77.