Although humans have a similar number of genes as flies, part of our greater complexity comes from a process called alternative splicing, in which multiple different variants of proteins can be made from a single gene. This process is controlled by a molecular machine called the spliceosome. Until recently, much of the work on spliceosomes has been done using yeast spliceosomes as this system is well conserved and works very similarly across all eukaryotes.
Our daily cycle of sleep and wakefulness – our circadian rhythm – is controlled by a central master clock in our brains: the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Previously, Michael Hastings’ group in the LMB’s Neurobiology Division had demonstrated that astrocytes were not merely the supporting cells that they had been thought to be, but also had a role in driving the body clock alongside the approximately 10,000 neurons found in the SCN.
Practically all brain functions are controlled through a finely tuned balance of neuronal excitation and inhibition. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in vertebrates is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA signals through two types of cell surface receptors: GABAA and GABAB, with GABAA receptors mediating millisecond-fast neurotransmission and GABAB receptors mediating slower signalling events.