When an animal detects a stimulus that might signal danger, this primes sensory and motor organs to respond more readily to further stimulation. This is called sensitisation and is one aspect of the more general phenomenon of arousal, in which animals become more alert and can respond more effectively to potential threats. However, the basic principles of how arousal is triggered have not been fully understood.
Many complex tubular organs, including kidney, lung, the intestine and several glands, form from a flat layer of cells during animal development. Failure of proper tube formation underlies severe congenital malformations such as Spina Bifida, and the failure to maintain tube architecture for instance underlies Polycystic Kidney Diseases. How tissues transition from flat 2D structures to 3D tubes is poorly understood.
Scientists have identified planets outside our solar system where the same chemical conditions exist that may have led to life on Earth. The researchers, from John Sutherland’s group in the LMB’s PNAC Division and the University of Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, found that the chances for life to develop on the surface of a rocky planet like Earth are connected to the type and strength of light given off by its host star.
Anne Bertolotti’s group in the LMB’s Neurobiology Division have developed the first platform to discover selective inhibitors of phosphatases, a class of enzyme which have largely been considered ‘undruggable’. This has allowed Anne’s group to identify a small molecule, Raphin1, which selectively inhibits a protein phosphatase and is effective in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease – an exciting step in the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Kiyoshi Nagai’s group in the LMB’s Structural Studies Division have used electron cryo-microscopy to solve the structure of the prespliceosome at near-atomic resolution, providing new insights into how the spliceosome is assembled and regulated.
The human genome contains approximately 20,000 genes, which when transcribed produce precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) consisting of coding sequences (exons) and non-coding sequences (introns).
Scientists in Lori Passmore’s group in the LMB’s Structural Studies Division have revealed new mechanistic insights into the link between translation and mRNA decay.
Scientists in Chris Tate’s group in the LMB’s Structural Studies Division have used electron cryo-microscopy to determine the structure of the serotonin receptor coupled to the heterotrimeric G protein Go, providing insights into how receptors bind specific G proteins.
Communication between cells throughout our bodies is vital for our health.
Work from Harvey McMahon’s group in the LMB’s Neurobiology Division has uncovered how a protein, FCHSD2, controls actin polymerisation during endocytosis. Importantly the scientists discovered that FCHSD2 does its job from the area surrounding the site of endocytosis – making it the first description of an endocytic protein which localises to the flat region around endocytic events.
Researchers at the LMB have solved the elusive 3D structure of activated Parkin, an enzyme implicated in early-onset Parkinson’s disease. Led by David Komander’s group in the LMB’s PNAC Division, in collaboration with the LMB’s Biological Mass Spectrometry facility, this new work reveals insights into previously unstudied parts of this important protein and helps explain why families with certain mutations in Parkin suffer from early-onset Parkinson’s disease.
Work by Joe Yeeles’ group in the LMB’s PNAC Division has for the first time revealed the earliest responses when the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery, the replisome, collides with DNA damage.
Every time a cell divides, its DNA must be replicated so that each daughter cell inherits a complete copy of the genome.