The discovery that different numbers of dyneins can be recruited by different cargo adaptors was unexpected. It suggests that different cargos could use different adaptors depending on their requirements for transport, for example, large cargos such as the mitochondria, need more force to pull them. One surprising aspect is that linking two motors together increases their overall speed – if you just tie two runners together, they won’t run any faster.
Previous work from KJ Patel’s group in the LMB’s PNAC Division revealed that aldehydes – such as acetaldehyde, a by-product of alcohol metabolism – can damage our DNA. Further research by the group showed that our cells are protected against these toxic aldehydes using a two-tier protection system: enzymes that remove these aldehydes (tier-1) and DNA repair that fixes the damage they cause (tier-2).
The human genome encodes approximately 5000 membrane-embedded proteins that carry out many essential processes such as cell-to-cell communication, cell adhesion and intracellular trafficking. Almost all of these proteins are assembled at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by molecular machines that guide them into the membrane. Because these thousands of membrane proteins are highly diverse in size, shape and charge, different machines are needed for different types of membrane proteins.
All the cells in our body contain thousands of proteins, molecular machines which carry out almost all biological processes that are essential for life. Many diseases, such as cancer and neurodegeneration, are caused when these protein machines go wrong. Thus it has been a long-term goal in science to characterise the functions of proteins within our cells.
The spliceosome is a molecular machine that plays an important role in gene expression. It cuts non-coding sequences (introns) out of messenger RNA (mRNA) precursors, and stitches together the useful coding sequences (exons). The spliceosome performs this in two steps. First, the start of an intron is recognised, cut, and joined to a specific point in the middle of that intron, forming a lasso-like looped structure.
Internal body clocks, which time the length of a day in almost all organisms, control many aspects of human physiology and activity, from when we go to bed to when we perform best mentally and physically. Most importantly, these biological circadian clocks are in every single individual cell of our bodies, not just in the brain.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, which manifests clinically in the form of characteristic motor defects. Most PD cases are sporadic and found in people above the age of 60. However, roughly 10% of PD cases are autosomal recessive juvenile forms (AR-JP), causing early-onset PD. It is known that mutations in PARK genes are responsible for this, but often a molecular explanation is lacking.
Inside our cells there are many distinct membrane compartments – organelles – which carry out the different tasks that allow the cell to function. Each organelle is like a factory that requires a constant supply of raw materials to stay active. Small transport vesicles deliver this cargo of particular proteins and lipids to each organelle.
Genes are encoded in DNA and need to be copied into an intermediate mRNA molecule that contains the instructions to allow synthesis of protein. Almost every mRNA has a repetitive sequence at one end called a poly(A) tail. The length of this tail specifies the amount of time that the mRNA is present in the cell, and how often it is translated into protein. Errors or changes in the tail are found in human diseases including β-thalassemia, thrombophilia and cancer, as well as viral infections.
The connectome of an animal is the comprehensive map, or wiring diagram, of all the neural connections in the brain. However, an important challenge is how to make sense of this information. The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, still the only animal for which the entire connectome has been described, illustrates the problem. Although it has only 302 neurons, these make thousands of connections.